UNIT 5 - THE PERIODIC TABLE & PERIODIC LAW

The Periodic Table

I.    Development of the Periodic Table

        A.    Mendeleev

        B.    Moseley

II.    Groups of the Periodic Table

        A.    Octet Rule

        B.    For each group

                1.    # of electrons in outermost energy level

                2.    outer electron configuration

                3.    outer orbital notation

                4.    definition of ion

                5.    lose or gain electrons?

                6.    charge of ion?

                7.    electron dot diagram

The Periodic Law

I.    Atomic Radius Trend

        A.    Across a period

                1.    effective nuclear charge

        B.    Down a group

II.    Ionization Energy Trend

        A.    Across a period

        B.    Down a group

                1.    shielding effect

III.    Electronegativity/Electron Affinity Trend

        A.    Across a period

        B.    Down a group

IV.    Periodic Law

        A.    The chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

        B.    What this statement really means

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North Carolina Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives:

Chm. 1.2 Understand the bonding that occurs in simple compounds in terms of bond type,

strength, and properties.

            1.2.1 Compare the relative strengths of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.

         Predict ionic charges for representative elements based on valence electrons.

 

Chm. 1.3 Understand the physical and chemical properties of atoms based on their position on

the Periodic Table.

            1.3.1 Classify the components of a periodic table.

         Identify groups as vertical columns on the periodic table.

         Know that main group elements in the same group have similar properties, the same number of valence electrons, and the same oxidation number.

         Summarize that reactivity increases as you go down within a group for metals and decreases for nonmetals.

         Identify periods as horizontal rows on the periodic table.

         Identify regions of the periodic table where metals, nonmetals, and metalloids are located.

         Classify elements as metals/nonmetals/metalloids based on location.

         Identify representative (main group) elements as groups 1, 2, 13-18.

         Identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and noble gases based on location on periodic table.

         Identify transition elements as groups 3-12.

            1.3.2 Infer the physical properties of an element based on its position on the Periodic Table.

         Define atomic radius and ionic radius.

         Know group and period general trends for atomic radius.

         Apply trends to arrange elements in order of increasing or decreasing atomic radius. Explain the reasoning behind the trends.

         Compare cation and anion radius to neutral atom.

         Compare the metallic character of elements.

         Use electron configuration and behavior to justify metallic character.

         Relate metallic character to ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

         Identify s, p, d, f blocks on Periodic Table.

         Predict the number of electrons lost or gained and the oxidation number based on the electron configuration of an atom.

         Define ionization energy and know group and period general trends for ionization energy. Explain reasoning behind the trend.

         Apply trends to arrange elements in order of increasing or decreasing ionization energy.

         Define electronegativity and know group and period trends for electronegativity. Explain the reasoning behind the trend.

         Apply trends to arrange elements in order of increasing or decreasing electronegativity.