Properties of Light

Part 1 - Select the best answer

1.  Which has a longer wavelength, orange or violet light?
2.  Which has a higher energy, x-rays or gamma rays?
3.  Which has a lower frequency, radio waves or green light?
4.  Which has the shortest wavelength, violet or ultraviolet light?
5.  Which has lower energy, infrared light or x-rays?

Part 2 - Fill in the blanks

6.  _______________ formed a theory to explain the structure of an atom by revising physical theories.
7.  As the energy level increases, the amount of energy an electron will possess _______________.
8.  Electrons give off energy in finite amounts called _______________ when returning to the ground state.
9.  When this energy is released in the form of light it is called a _______________.
10.  Electromagnetic radiation travels through space as _______________.
11.  The speed of light = _______________ (give number and units)
12.  The symbol for wavelength is _______________.
13.  _______________ equals the number of waves passing a point per second.
14.  In the equation c =
ln, c represents _______________, n represents _______________, and
      
l represents _______________.
15.  In the equation c =
ln, l and n are _______________ proportional.
16.  In the equation E = h
n, h represents _______________ and E represents _______________.
17.  In the equation E = h
n, E and n are _______________ proportional.
18.  Bohr chose the element _______________ to prove his theory.

Part 3 - True or False

19.  Electrons may regularly occupy spaces between orbitals.
20.  The varying wavelengths on the electromagnetic radiation spectrum travel at different speeds.
21.  Atoms release energy when electrons jump to higher energy levels.

 


EM SPECTRUM, WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY, AND ENERGY

 

1.) Look at the EM spectrum on p. iv of the reference tables to answer this question.

     As you move across the visible light spectrum from red to violet

(A)    Does the wavelength increase or decrease?

(B)     Does the frequency increase or decrease?

(C)    Does the energy increase or decrease?

 

2.) A beam of microwaves has a frequency of 1.0 x 109 Hz.  A radar beam has a frequency of 5.0 x 1011 Hz. 

     Which type (microwave or radar)…

(A)    has a longer wavelength?

(B)     is closer to visible light on the EM spectrum?

(C)    is closer to x-rays in frequency value?

 

3.) What is the frequency of an EM radiation wave if its wavelength is 3.6 x 10-9 meters?

 

4.) A beam of EM radiation has a wavelength of 4.257 x 10-7 cm.  What is its frequency?

 

5.) A photon of light has a wavelength of 3.20 x 105 meters.  Find…

            (A) the frequency

            (B) the energy

            (C) the region of the EM spectrum/type of radiation

 

6.) A photon has an energy of 4.00 x 10-19 J.  Find…

            (A) the frequency

            (B) the wavelength

            (C) the region of the EM spectrum/type of radiation

 

7.) A bright line spectrum contains a line with a wavelength of 518 nm.  Determine…

            (A) the wavelength in meters

            (B) the frequency

            (C) the energy

            (D) the color

 

*8.) Cobalt-60 is an artificial radioisotope that is produced in a nuclear reactor for use as a gamma ray source in the treatment of certain types of cancer.  If the wavelength of the gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source is 1.00 x 10-3 nm, calculate the energy of a photon of this radiation.


ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

1.  What is an electron cloud?

2.  Name the three major divisions within an electron cloud with respect to the energy of an electron.

3.  What letter represents the principal quantum number?

4.  What does the principle quantum number tell about an electron?

5.  What formula is used to determine the maximum number of electrons that can occupy any energy level?

6.  What is the maximum number of electrons for each of the following?
        (A) 1st energy level        (B) 4th energy level        (C) n = 3        (D) n = 5

7.  Energy levels are divided into _______________.

8.  How can we determine the possible number of sublevels in any energy level?

9.  Name the four primary sublevels in order of increasing energy.

10.  Circle the sublevel that represents the lowest energy in each pair.
        (A) 1s or 2s            (B) 2s or 2p            (C) 4f or 4d            (D) 3d or 4s            (E) 7s or 5d
        (F) 6s or 4s            (G) 4p or 5p            (H) 3s or 3d            (I) 2p or 3s

11.  Sublevels are divided into _______________.

12.  Each orbital can hold up to _______________ electrons.

13.  Sketch the shapes of the orbitals for the sublevels listed.
        (A) s:                                (B) px:                                (C) py:                                (D) pz:

 

14.  How many orbitals are in each sublevel?
        (A) s _______________    (B) p _______________    (C) d _______________    (D) f _______________


ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAMS

 

 

ELEMENT

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATION

HIGHEST OCCUPIED ENERGY LEVEL

# OF VALENCE ELECTRONS

ORBITAL NOTATION OF H.O.E.L.

ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM

1.

 

EX

magnesium

 

 

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

 

 

[Ne] 3s2

 

3

 

2

 

_hi_

  3s

 

: Mg

2.

carbon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

3.

sulfur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S

4.

barium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ba

5.

nickel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ni

6.

oxygen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O

7.

arsenic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As

8.

lead

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pb

9.

lithium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Li

10.

neon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ne

11.

bromine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Br

12.

sodium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Na

13.

chlorine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cl

14.

argon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ar

15.

calcium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ca

16.

zinc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zn

 

17.

 

 

 

potassium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

K

18.

iodine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

19.

cobalt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Co

20.

nitrogen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

21.

fluorine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

22.

iron

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fe

23.

phosphorus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

24.

aluminum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al

 


Unit 4 Review

Section I - Problems  (Given h = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s)

1.  The speed of light, c, equals ____________________ m/s.

2.  What is the frequency of a wave with a wavelength of 3.5 x 108 m?

3.  What is the energy of a photon with a frequency of 5.41 x 10-7 Hz?

4.  Substitute, rearrange, and write an equation that relates E, h, c, and l.

Section II - Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.  Label both ends of the spectrum with high/low frequency, high/low energy, and long/short wavelength

radio waves       microwaves     infrared light        ROYGBIV           ultraviolet light   x-rays        gamma rays

2.  Which has a higher energy, gamma or x-rays?

3.  Which has a shorter wavelength, radio or ultraviolet?

4.  Which has a lower frequency, yellow or green light?

5.  In the equation E = hn, energy and frequency are ____________________ proportional.

6.  In the equation c = ln, wavelength and frequency are __________________ proportional.

7.  The symbol for wavelength is _____.

8.  ____________________ equals the number of waves that pass a point per second.

9.  Electrons give off energy in the form of a ____________________ when returning to the ground state.

10.  Which scientist proposed the idea that electrons travel around the nucleus in fixed paths?

11.  When an electron moves from the ground state to the excited state, energy is ____________________.

12.  Bohr chose the element ____________________ to prove his theory.

13.  The dual wave-particle nature of electrons describes how the electrons in atoms can behave as
       ____________________ and ____________________.

Section III - Electrons

1.  What is an electron cloud?

2.  Who proposed the uncertainty principle?

3.  Who is credited with the idea that electrons are placed in the lowest energy level first?

4.  What rule requires that each of the "p" orbitals (at a particular energy level) receive one electron before any
     of the orbitals can have two electrons?

5.  What is the maximum number of electrons in any orbital?

6.  The principal quantum number, n, indicates the ____________________.

7.  The maximum number of electrons in an energy level can be determined by the equation ________________
     That means the maximum number of electrons in the 3rd energy level is ____________________.

8.  The number of sublevels in any energy level can be determined by ____________________.

9.  The number of orbitals in an energy level can be determined by the equation ____________________.
     So, the 3rd energy level has _____ orbitals.  (_____ is/are "s" orbitals, _____ is/are "p" orbitals, and _____
     is/are "d" orbitals)

10.  List the four sublevels according to increasing energy.

11.  The "s" sublevel is shaped like a ____________________ and has _____ orbitals.

12.  A "p" sublevel is shaped like a ____________________ and has _____ orbitals.

13.  The "d" sublevel has _____ orbitals and the "f" sublevel has _____ orbitals.

Section IV - Electron configuration, noble gas configuration, valence electrons, orbital notations

1.  What is the electron configuration for phosphorus?

2.  How many total electrons are in a neutral atom of phosphorus?

3.  Write the noble gas configuration for phosphorus.

4.  What is the highest occupied energy level for phosphorus?

5.  What is the atomic number of phosphorus?

6.  Draw the orbital notation for phosphorus.

7.  How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of phosphorus?

8.  How many unpaired electrons does phosphorus have?

9.  How many inner-shell electrons does phosphorus have?

10.  In which orbitals are the inner-shell electrons located?

11.  Draw the electron dot diagram for phosphorus.

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