Electrons, Energy, & the Electromagnetic Spectrum Notes

Simplified, 2-D Bohr Model:

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Here’s how the type/form of EM radiation can be determined…

The amount of energy released when an electron falls from a higher to a lower energy level is directly proportional to its frequency.  The calculation follows the equation:        E = h . ν

E = Energy (unit is J)
h = Planck’s Constant (6.626 x 10-34 J.s)
ν  = frequency (unit is Hz or 1/second)

EXAMPLE 1:  A particle of EM radiation has an energy of 1.15 x 10-16 J.  What is its frequency?
1.15 x 10-16 J = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s . ν
ν = 1.74 x 1017 Hz

The type of electromagnetic radiation can be determined if one knows the wavelength.  The wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency.  The calculation follows the equation:   c = λ . ν
c = speed of light (3.00 x 108 m/s)
λ  = wavelength (unit is m)
ν  = frequency (unit is Hz or 1/s)

EXAMPLE 2:  What is the wavelength of the same particle from EXAMPLE 1?
3.00 x 108 m/s = λ . 1.74 x 1017 Hz
λ = 1.72 x 10-9 m

EXAMPLE 3:  What type of electromagnetic radiation is the particle from EXAMPLE 1?
answer for wavelength is 10-9  so use chart on the next page to determine…
x-rays or ultraviolet (either one is acceptable)

PROBLEMS FOR YOU TO TRY ON YOUR OWN…

1.) A particle of EM radiation has a frequency of 5.76 x 1014 Hz.
(A) How much energy does this particle have?
(B) What is the wavelength of this particle?
(C) What specific type of electromagnetic radiation does this particle represent?

2.) A particle of electromagnetic radiation has 2.39 x 10-13 Joules of energy.
(A) What is the wavelength of this particle?
(B) What type of electromagnetic radiation does this particle represent?

Light Calculations Notes:
* Frequency and wavelength are ___________________ proportional
* Energy and frequency are ____________________ proportional

Light as a Particle Notes:
* Object emits energy in small, specific amounts (called ________________)
* _________________: particle of EM radiation carrying a quantum of energy
* Einstein suggested that light had properties of both waves and particles
Referred to as the ________________________________________ of light

Quantum Theory Notes:
* When atom falls from excited state to ground state, ____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
* Energy of photon = difference ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
* Energy states of atoms are fixed

Bohr model of the hydrogen atom Notes:
* said that e- circled the nucleus in fixed paths
* when in path, has fixed amount of energy
* e- cannot exist in space between path
* drawback of Bohr’s model =

EMISSION & ABSORPTION SPECTRA NOTES

According to the Bohr atomic model, electrons orbit the nucleus within specific energy levels.  These levels are defined by unique amounts of energy.  Electrons possessing the lowest energy are found in the levels closest to the nucleus.  Electrons with higher energy are located in progressively more distant energy levels.

If an electron absorbs sufficient energy to bridge the "gap" between energy levels, the electron may jump to a higher level.  Since this change results in a vacant lower orbital, this configuration is unstable.  The "excited" electron releases its newly acquired energy as it falls back to its initial or ground state.  Often, the excited electrons acquire sufficient energy to make several energy level transitions.  When these electrons return to the ground state, several distinct energy emissions occur.  The energy that the electrons absorb is often of a thermal or electrical nature, and the energy that an electron emits when returning to the ground state is called electromagnetic radiation.

In 1900, Max Planck studied visible emissions from hot glowing solids.  He proposed that light was emitted in "packets" of energy called quanta, and that the energy of each packet was proportional to the frequency of the light wave.  According to Einstein and Planck, the energy of the packet could be expressed as the product of the frequency (n) of emitted light and Planck's constant (h).  The equation is written as        E = hn

If white light passes through a prism or diffraction grating, its component wavelengths are bent at different angles.  This process produces a rainbow of distinct colors known as a continuous spectrum.  If, however, the light emitted from hot gases or energized ions is viewed in a similar manner, isolated bands of color are observed.  These bands form characteristic patterns - unique to each element.  They are known as bright line spectra or emission spectra.

By analyzing the emission spectrum of hydrogen gas, Bohr was able to calculate the energy content of the major electron levels.  Although the electron structure as suggested by his planetary model has been modified according to modern quantum theory, his description and analysis of spectral emission lines are still valid.

In addition to the fundamental role of spectroscopy played in the development of today's atomic model, this technique can also be used in the identification of elements.  Since the atoms of each element contain unique arrangements of electrons, emission lines can be used as spectral fingerprints.  Even without a spectroscope, this type of identification is possible since the major spectral lines will alter the color.

Properties of Light Worksheet
Part 1 - Select the best answer
1.  Which has a longer wavelength, orange or violet light?
2.  Which has a higher energy, x-rays or gamma rays?
3.  Which has a lower frequency, radio waves or green light?
4.  Which has the shortest wavelength, violet or ultraviolet light?
5.  Which has lower energy, infrared light or x-rays?

Part 2 - Fill in the blanks

6.  _______________ formed a theory to explain the structure of an atom by revising physical theories.
7.  As the energy level increases, the amount of energy an electron will possess _______________.
8.  Electrons give off energy in finite amounts called _______________ when returning to the ground state.
9.  When this energy is released in the form of light it is called a _______________.
10.  The speed of light = _______________ (give number and units)
11.  The symbol for wavelength is _______________.
12.  In the equation c =
λ . ν, c represents _______________, ν represents _______________, and

λ represents _______________.
13.  In the equation c =
λ . ν, λ and ν are _______________ proportional.
14.  In the equation E = h
. ν, h represents _______________ and E represents _______________.
15.  In the equation E = h
. ν, E and ν are _______________ proportional.
16.  Bohr chose the element _______________ to prove his theory.

Part 3 - True or False
17.  Electrons may regularly occupy spaces between orbitals.
18.  The varying wavelengths on the electromagnetic radiation spectrum travel at different speeds.

EM SPECTRUM, WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY, AND ENERGY WORKSHEET

1.) Look at the EM spectrum below to answer this question.

As you move across the visible light spectrum from red to violet

(A)  Does the wavelength increase or decrease?

(B)    Does the frequency increase or decrease?

(C)   Does the energy increase or decrease?

2.) A beam of microwaves has a frequency of 1.0 x 109 Hz.  A radar beam has a frequency of 5.0 x 1011 Hz.  Which type (microwave or radar)…

(A)  has a longer wavelength?

(B)    is closer to visible light on the EM spectrum?

(C)   is closer to x-rays in frequency value?

3.) What is the frequency of an EM radiation wave if its wavelength is 3.6 x 10-9 meters?

4.) A beam of EM radiation has a wavelength of 4.257 x 10-7 cm.  What is its frequency?

5.) A photon of light has a wavelength of 3.20 x 105 meters.  Find…

(A) the frequency

(B) the energy

(C) the region of the EM spectrum/type of radiation

6.) A photon has an energy of 4.00 x 10-19 J.  Find…

(A) the frequency

(B) the wavelength

(C) the region of the EM spectrum/type of radiation

7.) A bright line spectrum contains a line with a wavelength of 518 nm.  Determine…

(A) the wavelength in meters

(B) the frequency

(C) the energy

(D) the color
*8.) Cobalt-60 is an artificial radioisotope that is produced in a nuclear reactor for use as a gamma ray source in the treatment of certain types of cancer.  If the wavelength of the gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source is 1.00 x 10-3 nm, calculate the energy of a photon of this radiation.

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT NOTES

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:

ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT WORKSHEET

1.  What is an electron cloud?

2.  Name the three major divisions within an electron cloud with respect to the energy of an electron.

3.  What letter represents the principal quantum number?

4.  What does the principle quantum number tell about an electron?

5.  What formula is used to determine the maximum number of electrons that can occupy any energy level?

6.  What is the maximum number of electrons for each of the following?
(A) 1st energy level                (B) 4th energy level                (C) n = 3                      (D) n = 5

7.  Energy levels are divided into _______________.

8.  How can we determine the possible number of sublevels in any energy level?

9.  Name the four primary sublevels in order of increasing energy.

10.  Circle the sublevel that represents the lowest energy in each pair.
(A) 1s or 2s                 (B) 2s or 2p                 (C) 4f or 4d                 (D) 3d or 4s                (E) 7s or 5d
(F) 6s or 4s                  (G) 4p or 5p                (H) 3s or 3d                (I) 2p or 3s

11.  Sublevels are divided into _______________.

12.  Each orbital can hold up to _______________ electrons.

13.  Sketch the shapes of the orbitals for the sublevels listed.
(A) s:                           (B) px:                                      (C) py:                                     (D) pz:

14.  How many orbitals are in each sublevel?
(A) s _______________         (B) p _______________         (C) d _______________         (D) f _______________

More Electron Arrangement Notes!

Examples:

Se                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4

Sn                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2

Hg                   1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10

HOEL (Highest Occupied Energy Level):  energy level furthest from the nucleus that contains at least one electron

How to determine this using electron configuration?

~ largest non-exponent number

Se                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4                                                           HOEL = 4

Sn                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2                           HOEL = 5

Hg                   1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10       HOEL = 6

Valence Electrons:  electrons in the HOEL

How to determine this using electron configuration?

~ add up exponents of terms in HOEL

Se                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4
HOEL = 4                   Valence electrons = 2 + 4 = 6

Sn                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2
HOEL = 5                   Valence electrons = 2 + 2 = 4

Hg                   1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10
HOEL = 6                   Valence electrons = 2

Noble Gas Configuration:  shortcut for electron configuration

How is it written?

~ [ symbol for noble has closest to element with lower atomic # ]

~ [after brackets] next number is the period that the element is located in

~ after that number, write “s”

~ continue electron configuration in diagonal rule order until appropriate # of
electrons is reached

*NOTE:  ending of electron configuration and noble gas configuration should be the same*

Se                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4
[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4

18           20       30       34

Sn                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2

36      38       48      50

Hg                   1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10
[Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10

54     56       70       80

Orbital Notation:  drawing of how electrons are arranged in orbitals; will only need to do this for the HOEL

*NOTE:           ___  = orbital              or   =  electrons

Se                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4
Sn                    1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p2

Hg                   1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10
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Dot Diagrams:  symbol represents nucleus and non-valence (“inner-shell”) electrons;  dots around symbol represent valence electrons

ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAMS WORKSHEET

 ELEMENT ELECTRON CONFIGURATION NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATION HIGHEST OCCUPIED ENERGY LEVEL # OF VALENCE ELECTRONS ORBITAL NOTATION OF H.O.E.L. ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAM 1.   EX magnesium 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 [Ne] 3s2 3 2 : Mg 2. carbon C 3. sulfur S 4. barium Ba 5. nickel Ni 6. oxygen O 7. arsenic As 8. lead Pb 9. lithium Li 10. neon Ne 11. bromine Br 12. sodium Na 13. chlorine Cl 14. argon Ar 15. calcium Ca 16. zinc Zn 17. potassium K 18. iodine I 19. cobalt Co 20. nitrogen N 21. fluorine F 22. iron Fe 23. phosphorus P 24. aluminum Al

QUANTUM NUMBERS NOTES
~ describe one specific electron
~ 1st quantum number = PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER
~ abbreviated "n"
~ tells the energy level the electron is located in
~ n = number of the energy level
~ 1st energy level: n = 1, 4th energy level: n = 4, etc.

~ 2nd quantum number = ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTUM NUMBER
~ abbreviated "
l "
~ tells the sublevel the electron is located in
~ tells shape of orbital
~ "s" sublevel:
l = 0, "p" sublevel: l = 1, "d" sublevel: l = 2, "f" sublevel: l = 3

~ 3rd quantum number = MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER
~ abbreviated "m"
~ tells which orbital the electron is in
~ tells orientation of orbital around nucleus
~ m = -
l .. + l

~ 4th quantum number = SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER
~ abbreviated "
s "
~ tells which electron is being described
~ tells which way electron is spinning
~
s = -1/2 or +1/2

Pauli Exclusion Principle:

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

1.)  What are the 4 quantum numbers for the electron shown above?

2.)  If the electron in question 1 was the last electron added, what element would it be?

3.)  Draw in the electron (and the orbital notation) for the electron with the following quantum numbers.
n = 3
l = 2                        m = -1                    s = - ˝

4.)  How many electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 3 and
l = 1?

5.)  What are the four quantum numbers for the electron circled in the diagram below?
n =
l =                           m =                         s =

QUANTUM NUMBERS WORKSHEET

 Element 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 1.) K _ _ _ _ _ _ _ h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2.) O _ h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3.) Ar _ _ _ _ i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4.) Br _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5.) Rb _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6.) Co _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7.) Se _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8.) B _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9.) P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

** Each question below corresponds to the number in the table. **
For 1 – 3, give the four quantum numbers for the electron indicated.

1.)  n =             l =                    m =                  s =
2.)  n =
l =                    m =                  s =
3.)  n =
l =                    m =                  s =
For 4 – 9, draw in the electron with the following sets of quantum numbers.
4.)  n = 3
l = 2      m = 0               s = + ˝                        5.)  n = 3          l = 1                  m = + 2            s = + 1/2
6.)  n = 4
l = 1      m = + 1            s = - 1/2                         7.)  n = 2          l = 1                  m = 0               s = + 1/2
8.)  n = 3
l = 2      m = - 1             s = - 1/2                         9.)  n = 2          l = 1                  m = - 1             s = - 1/2

10.)  Does an electron with this set of quantum numbers exist in the element calcium?
n = 4
l = 1                  m = 0               s = - ˝

Determine the element whose outermost electron (last electron added) is being defined by the following quantum numbers.
11.)  n = 1
l =0       m = 0               s = -1/2
12.)  n = 4
l =1       m = 1               s = -1/2
13.)  n = 3
l =1       m = -1              s = +1/2
14.)  n = 4
l = 0      m = 0               s = +1/2
15.)  n = 3
l = 2      m = -2              s = -1/2

Unit 4 Review Worksheet

Section I - Problems       Given:               E = h . ν            h = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s
c = λ . ν            c = 3.00 x 108 m/s

1.  What is the frequency of a wave with a wavelength of 3.5 x 10-4 m?

2.  What is the energy of a photon with a frequency of 5.41 x 1017 Hz?

3.  What type of electromagnetic radiation is described in question 2?

Section II - Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.  Label both ends of the spectrum with high/low frequency, high/low energy, and long/short wavelength

radio waves       microwaves     infrared light        ROYGBIV          ultraviolet light   x-rays        gamma rays

2.  Which has a higher energy, gamma or x-rays?

3.  Which has a shorter wavelength, radio or ultraviolet?

4.  Which has a lower frequency, yellow or green light?

5.  In the equation E = h . ν, energy and frequency are ____________________ proportional.

6.  In the equation c = λ . ν, wavelength and frequency are __________________ proportional.

7.  The symbol for wavelength is _____.

8.  Electrons give off energy in the form of a ____________________ when returning to the ground state.

9.  Which scientist proposed the idea that electrons travel around the nucleus in fixed paths?

10.  When an electron moves from the ground state to the excited state, energy is ____________________.

11.  Bohr chose the element ____________________ to prove his theory.

12.  The dual wave-particle nature of electrons describes how the electrons in atoms can behave as
____________________ and ____________________.

Section III - Electrons

1.  What is an electron cloud?

2.  Who proposed the uncertainty principle?

3.  Who is credited with the idea that electrons are placed in the lowest energy level first?

4.  What rule requires that each of the "p" orbitals (at a particular energy level) receive one electron before any
of the orbitals can have two electrons?

5.  What is the maximum number of electrons in any orbital?

6.  The principal quantum number, n, indicates the ____________________.

7.  The maximum number of electrons in an energy level can be determined by the equation ________________
That means the maximum number of electrons in the 3rd energy level is ____________________.

8.  The number of sublevels in any energy level can be determined by ____________________.

9.  The number of orbitals in an energy level can be determined by the equation ____________________.
So, the 3rd energy level has _____ orbitals.  (_____ is/are "s" orbitals, _____ is/are "p" orbitals, and _____
is/are "d" orbitals)

10.  List the four sublevels according to increasing energy.

11.  The "s" sublevel is shaped like a ____________________ and has _____ orbitals.

12.  A "p" sublevel is shaped like a ____________________ and has _____ orbitals.

13.  The "d" sublevel has _____ orbitals and the "f" sublevel has _____ orbitals.

Section IV - Electron configuration, noble gas configuration, valence electrons, orbital notations

1.  What is the electron configuration for phosphorus?

2.  How many total electrons are in a neutral atom of phosphorus?

3.  Write the noble gas configuration for phosphorus.

4.  What is the highest occupied energy level for phosphorus?

5.  What is the atomic number of phosphorus?

6.  Draw the orbital notation for phosphorus.

7.  Circle the last electron added to phosphorus.  What are the four quantum numbers for this electron?
n =
l =                    m =                  s =

8.  How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of phosphorus?

9.  How many inner-shell electrons does phosphorus have?

10.  In which orbitals are the inner-shell electrons located?

11.  Draw the electron dot diagram for phosphorus.

Section V - Quantum numbers (Honors level only)

1.  How many electrons can be described by the quantum numbers n = 3 and l = 1?

2.  How many electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 2 and l = 3?

3.  How many electrons can have the value n = 3?

4.  How many electrons in an atom have the quantum numbers n = 4 and l = 2?

5.  Which of the following sets of quantum numbers does NOT represent a possible set of quantum numbers?
(There may be more than one correct answer.)

l                   s
(A)        4          8          -4         1/2
(B)        6          5          -5         1/2
(C)        3          2          2          1/2
(D)       6          0          1          1/2

Emission Spectra Lab

Pre-Lab Questions:

1.  According to Bohr's atomic model, where may an atom's electrons be found?

2.  How do electrons become excited?

3.  State the equation that is used to determine the energy content of a packet of light of specific frequency.

4.  What form of energy emission accompanies the return on excited electrons to the ground state?

Write and/or draw your observations as you view the emission spectra.

DATA TABLE

 Gas Observations incandescent hydrogen (H2) carbon dioxide (CO2) helium (He) neon (Ne) water vapor (H2O) air mercury (Hg) argon krypton xenon nitrogen (N2) iodine (I2) oxygen (O2) fluorescent

FLAME TESTS FOR METALS LAB

Background:  The active metals of groups 1 and 2 can be "excited" in a flame.  The energy (in the form of heat) in the flame causes the electrons in the metal to jump up into higher energy levels.  When the electrons fall from the excited state, they produce light.  Each metal produces a characteristic color of light.

Purpose:  To identify the presence of a metal found in each solution by observing the color produced when metal compounds are excited in a flame.  To determine the identity of a metal ion in an unknown solution.

Lab Safety:
** ALWAYS WEAR YOUR SAFETY GOGGLES! **
** TIE BACK LONG HAIR! **

Procedure:
1.  Select one wooden splint from the container for the element you are testing.

2.  Place it into the flame as demonstrated by your instructor.  Place burned wooden splints into beaker of water.

3.  Carefully observe the color of the flame and record your observations.

4.  Test the remainder of the solutions.

5.  Compare the known solutions with the unknown solution and record your observations.

Data:  Record the color of the flame for each of the known solutions.

 Metal Ion Color of Flame Lithium Sodium Potassium Calcium Barium Copper Unknown # ____

Questions:
1.  What is the identity of the unknown based on your observations?  How did you know?

2.  According to the Bohr model of the atom, what happens in the atom that causes colors to be emitted during these
flame tests?

3.  Why should you use a separate wooden splint for each element you test?  (Why not reuse a partially burned wooden splint?)

4.  What do you think would happen if the unknown substance contained a mixture of two compounds?  Could each metal be identified?

5.  Understanding the flame test properties of the group 1 and 2 metals, what application could these chemicals be used for?