UNIT 11 SYLLABUS – LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, & PHASE CHANGES
I. LIQUIDS & SOLIDS
A. Properties of Liquids
1. surface tension
2. capillary action
3. vapor pressure
4. dynamic equilibrium
B. Heat Energy During Temperature Changes (no phase change)
1. q = m . Cp . ΔT
2. specific heat
II. PHASE CHANGES
A. Phase Diagrams
1. critical point (critical temperature and critical pressure)
2. triple point
B. Heat Energy During Phase Changes (no temperature change)
1. heat of fusion
2. heat of vaporization
North Carolina Essential Standards and Clarifying Objectives:
Chm. 1.2 Understand the bonding that occurs in simple compounds in terms of bond type,
strength, and properties.
1.2.5 Compare the properties of ionic, covalent, metallic, and network compounds.
• Describe macromolecules and network solids: water (ice), graphite/diamond, polymers (PVC, nylon), proteins (hair, DNA) intermolecular structure as a class of molecules with unique properties.
Chm. 2.1 Understand the relationship among pressure, temperature, volume, and phase.
2.1.1 Explain the energetic nature of phase changes.
• Explain physical equilibrium: liquid water-water vapor. Vapor pressure depends on temperature and concentration of particles in solution. (conceptual only – no calculations)
• Explain how the energy (kinetic and potential) of the particles of a substance changes when heated, cooled, or changing phase.
• Identify pressure as well as temperature as a determining factor for phase of matter.
• Contrast heat and temperature, including temperature as a measure of average kinetic energy, and appropriately use the units Joule, Celsius, and Kelvin.
2.1.2 Explain heating and cooling curves.
• Define and use the terms and/or symbols for: specific heat capacity, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization.
• Interpret the following:
‣ heating and cooling curves (noting both significance of plateaus and the physical states of each segment
‣ Phase diagrams for H2O and CO2
• Complete calculations of: q=m.Cp.∆T, q = m.Hf , and q = m.Hv using heating/cooling curve data.
2.1.3 Interpret the data presented in phase diagrams.
• Draw phase diagrams of water and carbon dioxide (shows how sublimation occurs). Identify regions, phases and phase changes using a phase diagram.
• Use phase diagrams to determine information such as (1) phase at a given temperature and pressure, (2) boiling point or melting point at a given pressure, (3) triple point of a material.
2.1.4 Infer simple calorimetric calculations based on the concepts of heat lost equals heat
gained and specific heat.
• Recognize that, for a closed system, energy is neither lost nor gained only transferred between components of the system.
• Complete calculations of: q=m.Cp.∆T, q = m.Hf , q = m.Hv, and q lost=(-q gain) in water, including phase changes, using laboratory data.